Italian Philosopher, Theologian, Astrologer and Poet
Tommaso Campanella, baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella
Italian Philosopher, Theologian, Astrologer and Poet
God gives us life, and God our life preserves; nay, all our happiness on Him doth rest: why then should love of God inflame man's breast less than his lady and the lord he serves?
On the sixth interior are painted all the mechanical arts, with the several instruments for each and their manner of use among different nations. Alongside, the dignity of such is placed, and their several inventors are named. But on the exterior all the inventors in science, in warfare, and in law are represented.
Wars might never occur, nevertheless they are exercised in military tactics and in hunting, lest perchance they should become effeminate and unprepared for any emergency.
Here then should each man read, and gazing find both how to live and govern, and beware of godlessness; and, seeing God all-where, be bold to grasp the universal mind.
Self-love fools man with false opinion that earth, air, water, fire, the stars we see, though stronger and more beautiful than we, feel nought, love not, but move for us alone.
We, indeed, are more certain that such a very learned man has the knowledge of governing, than you who place ignorant persons in authority, and consider them suitable merely because they have sprung from rulers or have been chosen by a powerful faction. But our Hoh, a man really the most capable to rule, is for all that never cruel nor wicked, nor a tyrant, inasmuch as he possesses so much wisdom. This, moreover, is not unknown to you, that the same argument cannot apply among you, when you consider that man the most learned who knows most of grammar, or logic, or of Aristotle or any other author.
After the battle they celebrate the military triumphs after the manner of the Romans, and even in a more magnificent way. Prayers by the way of thank-offerings are made to God, and then the general presents himself in the temple, and the deeds, good and bad, are related by the poet or historian, who according to custom was with the expedition.
How far more wondrous than your phantasies are Nature's works, how far more sweet to sing! Thus taught, the soul falsehood and truth descries.
So that the wise men were obliged to rule themselves like lunatics to shun grim death, seeing the biggest maniac now was king.
When their women have brought forth children, they suckle and rear them in temples set apart for all. They give milk for two years or more as the physician orders. After that time the weaned child is given into the charge of the mistresses, if it is a female, and to the masters, if it is a male. And then with other young children they are pleasantly instructed in the alphabet, and in the knowledge of the pictures, and in running, walking, and wrestling; also in the historical drawings, and in languages; and they are adorned with a suitable garment of different colors.
And they defend themselves by the opinion of Socrates, of Cato, of Plato, and of St. Clement; but, as you say, they misunderstand the opinions of these thinkers. And the inhabitants of the solar city ascribe this to their want of education, since they are by no means learned in philosophy. Nevertheless, they send abroad to discover the customs of nations, and the best of these they always adopt. Practice makes the women suitable for war and other duties. Thus they agree with Plato, in whom I have read these same things.
If the whole world's our home where we may run, up, friends, forsake those secondary schools which give grains, units, inches for the whole! If facts surpass mere words, melt pride of soul, And pain, and ignorance that hardens fools, here in the fire I've stolen from the Sun!
The greater part of the city is built upon a high hill, which rises from an extensive plain, but several of its circles extend for some distance beyond the base of the hill, which is of such a size that the diameter of the city is upward of two miles, so that its circumference becomes about seven. On account of the humped shape of the mountain, however, the diameter of the city is really more than if it were built on a plain.
With the right foot they turn the horse to the left, and with the left to the right. This secret, moreover, is not known to the Tartars.
And when the play is over, it shall be that God will judge with justice and with grace.— aping this art divine, the human race plans for itself on earth a comedy:
If we know not its love, its intellect, neither the worm within my belly seeks to know me, but his petty mischief wreaks:— thus it behooves us to be circumspect.
The inhabitants of the City of the Sun do not fear death, because they all believe that the soul is immortal, and that when it has left the body it is associated with other spirits, wicked or good, according to the merits of this present life.
And when there is no wind a beast draws along a huge cart, which is a grand sight.
In fact, all sedentary and stationary pursuits are practiced by the women, such as weaving, spinning, sewing, cutting the hair, shaving, dispensing medicines, and making all kinds of garments. They are, however, excluded from working in wood and the manufacture of arms.
The warriors of the City of the Sun, however, are always the victors.
Born of God's Wisdom and Philosophy, keen lover of true beauty and true good, I call the vain self-traitorous multitude back to my mother's milk; for it is she, faithful to God her spouse, who nourished me, making me quick and active to intrude within the inmost veil, where I have viewed and handled all things in eternity.
In this matter I was struck with astonishment at their truthful discourse and at the trial of their boys, who did not understand my language well. Indeed it is necessary that three of them should be skilled in our tongue, three in Arabic, three in Polish, and three in each of the other languages, and no recreation is allowed them unless they become more learned. For that they go out to the plain for the sake of running about and hurling arrows and lances, and of firing harquebuses, and for the sake of hunting the wild animals and getting a knowledge of plants and stones, and agriculture and pasturage; sometimes the band of boys does one thing, sometimes another.
The women wear the toga below the knee, but the men above; and both sexes are instructed in all the arts together. When this has been done as a start, and before their third year, the boys learn the language and the alphabet on the walls by walking round them. They have four leaders, and four elders, the first to direct them, the second to teach them, and these are men approved beyond all others. After some time they exercise themselves with gymnastics, running, quoits, and other games, by means of which all their muscles are strengthened alike
But he who did not bear help to an ally or friend is beaten with rods.
Keen Socrates to quell the Sophists came: to quell the Tyrants, Cato just and rough: to quell the Hypocrites, Christ, heaven's own flame.